v3 (latest)
Response Caching

Response Caching

Response caching is a technique for reducing server load by caching GraphQL query operation results. For incoming GraphQL Query operations with the same variable values, the same response is returned from a cache instead of executed again.

Quick Start

The response cache is a separate package that needs to be installed.

yarn add @graphql-yoga/plugin-response-cache

The following sample setup show as slow field resolver (Query.slow).

Response cache example
import { createYoga, createSchema } from 'graphql-yoga'
import { createServer } from 'node:http'
import { useResponseCache } from '@graphql-yoga/plugin-response-cache'
const yoga = createYoga({
  schema: createSchema({
    typeDefs: /* GraphQL */ `
      type Query {
        slow: String
    resolvers: {
      Query: {
        slow: async () => {
          await new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 5000))
          return 'I am slow.'
  plugins: [
      // global cache
      session: () => null
const server = createServer(yoga)
server.listen(4000, () => {
  console.info('Server is running on http://localhost:4000/graphql')

After starting the server we can execute a GraphQL Query operation, that selects the Query.slow field.

Execute slow GraphQL Query Operation with cUrl
curl -X POST -H 'Content-Type: application/json' http://localhost:4000/graphql \
-d '{"query":"{slow}"}' -w '\nTotal time : %{time_total}'

The output will look similar to the following:

Initial Request time
{"data":{"slow":"I am slow."}}
Total time:5.026632

After executing the same curl statement a second time, the duration is significantly lower.

Cached Request time
{"data":{"slow":"I am slow."}}
Total time:0.007571%

Session based caching

If your GraphQL API returns specific data depending on the viewer's session, you can use the session option to cache the response per session. Usually, the session is determined by an HTTP header, e.g. an user id within the encoded access token.

The session function receives a request parameter that is a Request object (opens in a new tab).

Response Cache configuration based on header
  // cache based on the authentication header
  session: (request) => request.headers.get('authentication')

Time to Live (TTL)

It is possible to give cached operations a time to live. Either globally, based on schema coordinates (opens in a new tab) or object types.

If a query operation result contains multiple objects of the same or different types, the lowest TTL is picked.

Response Cache configuration with TTL
  session: () => null,
  // by default cache all operations for 2 seconds
  ttl: 2_000,
  ttlPerType: {
    // only cache query operations containing User for 500ms
    User: 500
  ttlPerSchemaCoordinate: {
    // cache operations selecting Query.lazy for 10 seconds
    'Query.lazy': 10_000

Invalidations via Mutation

When executing a mutation operation the cached query results that contain type entities within the Mutation result will be automatically be invalidated.

GraphQL mutation operation
mutation UpdateUser {
  updateUser(id: 1, newName: "John") {
GraphQL operation execution result
  "data": {
    "updateLaunch": {
      "__typename": "User",
      "id": "1",
      "name": "John"

For the given GraphQL operation and execution result all cached query results that contain the type User with the id 1 will be invalidated.

This behavior can be disabled by setting the invalidateViaMutation option to false.

Disabling mutation invalidation
  session: (request) => null,
  invalidateViaMutation: false

Manual Invalidation

You can invalidate a type or specific instances of a type using the cache invalidation API.

In order to use the API, you need to manually instantiate the cache an pass it to the useResponseCache plugin.

Manual cache construction
import {
} from '@graphql-yoga/plugin-response-cache'
const cache = createInMemoryCache()
  session: () => null,

Then in your business logic you can call the invalidate method on the cache instance.

Invalidate all GraphQL query results that reference a specific type:

Invalidating a type
cache.invalidate([{ type: 'User' }])

Invalidate all GraphQL query results that reference a specific entity of a type:

Invalidate a specific entity of a type
cache.invalidate([{ type: 'User', id: '1' }])

Invalidate all GraphQL query results multiple entities in a single call.

Invalidate multiple entities
  { type: 'Post', id: '1' },
  { type: 'User', id: '2' }

External Cache

By default, the response cache stores all the cached query results in memory.

If you want a cache that is shared between multiple server instances you can use the Redis cache implementation, which is available as a separate package.

The Redis cache currently only works in Node.js environments.
yarn add @envelop/response-cache-redis
Create a custom Redis Cache
import { useResponseCache } from '@graphql-yoga/plugin-response-cache'
import { createRedisCache } from '@envelop/response-cache-redis'
import Redis from 'ioredis'
const redis = new Redis({
  host: 'my-redis-db.example.com',
  port: '30652',
  password: '1234567890'
const redis = new Redis('redis://:1234567890@my-redis-db.example.com:30652')
const cache = createRedisCache({ redis })
  session: () => null,

HTTP Caching via ETag and If-None-Match headers

Response Caching plugin sends ETag headers to the client, and respects If-None-Match headers in the HTTP request.

If the client sends an If-None-Match header with the same value as the ETag header, the server will respond with a 304 Not Modified status code without any content, which allows you to reduce the server load.

Most of the browsers and some HTTP clients support this behavior, so you can use it to improve the performance of your frontend application.

Learn more about ETag and If-None-Match headers (opens in a new tab).

Example with curl

First we send a request to the GraphQL server, and we can see that the response contains the headers

Get ETag and Last-Modified headers
curl -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
     "http://localhost:4000/graphql?query={me{id name}}" -v

Then the server will respond a data something the following with the ETag and Last-Modified headers:

  • ETag is the key that is used to identify the cached response.
  • Last-Modified is used to determine if the cached response is still valid.
Response with ETag and Last-Modified headers
> GET /graphql?query={me{id,name}} HTTP/1.1
> Host: localhost:4000
> User-Agent: curl/7.68.0
> Accept: application/json
* Mark bundle as not supporting multiuse
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< access-control-allow-origin: *
< content-length: 130
< content-type: application/json; charset=utf-8
< etag: 2c0ebfe7b2b0273029f2fa23a99d213b56f4838756b3ef7b323c04de1e836be3
< last-modified: Wed Feb 15 2023 15:23:55 GMT+0300 (GMT+03:00)
< Date: Wed, 15 Feb 2023 12:23:55 GMT
< Connection: keep-alive
< Keep-Alive: timeout=5

In the next calls, we can use the ETag header as the If-None-Match header together with Last-Modified header as If-Modified-Since to check if the cached response is still valid.

Use the headers to check if the cached response is still valid
curl -H "Accept: application/json" \
     -H "If-None-Match: 2c0ebfe7b2b0273029f2fa23a99d213b56f4838756b3ef7b323c04de1e836be3" \
     -H "If-Modified-Since: Wed Feb 15 2023 15:23:55 GMT" \
     "http://localhost:4000/graphql?query=\{me\{id,name\}\}" -v

Then the server will return 304: Not Modified status code with no content.